Versatile tool for modeling X-ray induced irradiation of materials

XCASCADE [1,2] is a Monte Carlo (MC) code realizing individual particle event-by-event MC simulation, which models X-ray-induced electron cascades in solids. An electron cascade typically starts with absorption of an X-ray photon, which creates an energetic photoelectron and an inner- shell hole in the target.

The hole then undergoes one- or many-step decay (depending on the target and photon energy) creating one or several secondary electrons. Photo- and secondary electrons scatter on atoms inelastically creating more secondary electrons until they can no longer excite more electrons (i.e. their energy falls below the lowest ionization threshold of the target's atoms). It is also possible to start a cascade with an incident electron instead of a photon.

The program implements a “standard” MC algorithm. It does not include yet the effects such as DOS, correlations, Pauli’s blocking. The solid target is characterised by its atomic composition, density, and energy levels. The laser pulse is characterised by its duration, shape, fluence and photon energy.

[1] N. Medvedev, Appl. Phys. B 118, 417 (2015); Erratum Appl. Phys. B 125, 80 (2019).
[2] B. Ziaja, D. van der Spoel, A. Szoeke, J. Hajdu, Phys. Rev. B. 64, 214104 (2001).


License for XCASCADE

There are two kinds of licenses for XCASCADE, a non-commercial license and a commercial one.

The non-commercial license can be distributed only to group leaders or senior scientists permanently employed in a research institute. They are obliged to use XCASCADE only: (i) for peaceful and non-commercial purposes, (ii) in science and education, (iii) within the research group specified in the license, and to cite it in the resulting publications. Other conditions of use are specified in the license. The non-commercial XCASCADE license is for free.

Groups interested in getting an XCASCADE license can send an email request to our Administrative Assistant, Ms. Berit Heiser:


Please specify the name of the interested group leader and of the research institute clearly in the email. Emails without the (valid) data will not be further processed.